394 HISTORY OF WESTERN EDUCATION be much passivity, and even, it may be, active resistance and evasion on the part of the child; but happily he learns easily under pressure. Never again will there be such susceptibility to drill and discipline, such plasticity to habituation, or such ready adjustment to new conditions. It is the age of external and mechanical training, Reading, writing, drawing, manual training, musical technique, foreign tongues and their pronunciation, the manipulation of numbers and of geometrical elements, and many kinds of skill have now their golden hour, and if it passes unimproved they can never be acquired later without a heavy handicap of disadvantage and loss. These necessities may be bad for the health of body, sense, mind, as well as for morals, and pedagogic art consists in breaking the child into them be- times as intensively and as quickly as possible with minimal strain and with the least amount of explanation or coquetting for natural interest.* It is not possible to follow Dr. Hall further in his account of the ideal school as based on child study. But enough has been said to indicate with what freshness and wisdom he has brought the evolutionary principle of recapitulation to bear on the practical work of education. 6. PROFESSOR JOHN DEWEY AND THE EXPERIMENTAL SCHOOL John Dewey (b. 1859) has much in common with Dr. Hall. The starting-point of their educational thought is the doctrine of evolution as applied in child study, and the philosophy of both men is, broadly speaking, pragmatic in its insistence on the subordination of intellect to practical ends. There are differences, however, not a few. Dewey, once the disciple of the English idealists, is the more sober and the more subtle thinker. It might almost be said that he is less a scientist and more a philo- sopher. And his ideas on the practice of education, though quite as revolutionary as Hall's, seem more in touch with the actualities of life. It is characteristic of the difference between the two men that whereas Hall's plans for an ideal school followed the working out of his educational philosophy, Dewey's educational philosophy * After Adolescence, pp. ix-xiii.